Analytical psychology, also called Jungian psychology, is a school of thought within clinical and counseling psychology. It was founded by Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, as an offshoot of Freudian psychology.
Jung introduced concepts like the personal unconscious, collective unconscious, psychological complex, anima and animus. In trying to understand the human psyche, he stressed the importance of the unconscious aspects of the psyche and the power of dreams and archetypes.
In analytical psychology theory, everyone has a unique personal unconscious that serves as a counterbalance to the ego and the conscious personality. And everyone also has a collective unconscious that contains archetypes that are primordial and universal. The anima (the female archetype in a man’s unconscious) and the animus (the male archetype in a woman’s unconscious) are two such archetypes.
Jung didn’t consider analytical psychology as a complete method of psychotherapy for every patient. In Jung’s own psychiatric practice, he used Jungian psychotherapy for some patients, but found Adlerian or Freudian more useful for other patients. This liberal and flexible attitude was passed on to many Jungian therapists after him, and the field of Jungian psychology has broadened as a result.
Most analytical psychologists are either counseling psychologists or clinical psychologists; the main difference between the two is that clinical psychologists normally treat patients who suffer from more serious conditions than counseling psychologists do. A small number of analytical psychologists are primarily researchers, particularly those who work at universities, where they might also teach.
Types of Degrees
Based on Jung’s psychological theories, analytical psychology programs help students understand the fabric of human thought processes and the human mind. By understanding the mind at large, analytical psychologists translate human behavior through the knowledge acquired. Jungian institutes have been formed and are dedicated to this sole degree and the Jungian school of psychology. Unlike other psychology degrees, analytical psychology does not cover typical courses of research methods. These programs include courses such as fundamentals of analytical psychology, psychological interpretation of dreams, myths and pictures, psychiatry and theories of neurosis. In some cases, psychology with respect to religion is also studied.
Analytical psychologists first need to get a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology. This degree might be sufficient for getting lower-level jobs in social work or counseling, but it is insufficient for becoming a licensed analytical psychologist.
Candidates can either pursue their Master of Arts or Doctoral degrees in analytical psychology. The MA degree typically takes two years to complete. Some institutions require state-specific requirements to be fulfilled on admission. Candidates with a GRE of 1300 and a 3.5 GPA are preferred. While not necessary, candidates will backgrounds in psychiatric psychology may find their knowledge more applicable to analytical psychology.
A Master of Arts degree in clinical psychology is adequate for some jobs in social work and teaching, but university teachers must have a doctorate.
Most licensed analytical psychotherapists earn a doctorate in clinical psychology: either a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) or a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD). The latter is usually preferred for counselors, as it emphasizes courses in counseling, while the PhD offers more courses in research. Either doctorate is acceptable for teaching.
Some analytical psychologists gain a counseling license by taking a terminal master’s degree program in clinical psychology and then taking additional courses, training and placement work.
While some analytical psychologists teach or perform research, most of them counsel patients. Most counseling psychologists open their own private practice, while most clinical psychologists work in hospitals, substance abuse clinics, mental health care facilities or other health care facilities.
Analytical psychologists sometimes specialize in a particular area of psychology, such as only treating a particular type of disorder. Others specialize in their choice of clients, such as only treating adolescents. Still others specialize in a type of therapy, like mostly doing group therapy or family counseling.
Those who open their own private practice are more apt to specialize than those who work for institutions, mainly because they have more freedom in choosing their patients. But because it usually takes years to establish a good private practice, most analytical psychologists work for a regular paycheck for a few years until they can afford to start their own practice.
According to the Bureau of Labor website, the mean annual wage of the average clinical, counseling and school psychologist as of May 2013 was $72,710, and the mean hourly wage was $34.96.
Many counselors with a well-established private practice earn considerably more than this, though it might take several years to establish a lucrative practice. Those who work in private practice are also able to set their own hours; this lets them take time off if they don’t mind taking a pay cut.