What is Forensic Psychology?
In popular culture, forensic psychologists are best known as profilers who develop psychological profiles of criminals for law enforcement agencies. However, this picture of forensic psychology is somewhat limited.
Instead, forensic psychology involves the application of various disciplines, among them psychology, criminal justice, and law, to address matters of a legislative, judicial, or administrative nature. Forensic psychologists do not just deal solely with criminology; rather, their work is at the intersection of clinical psychology and forensics and involves research and application of these disciplines to a variety of issues, from victims rights to issues that break apart families.
Forensic psychology is a relatively young field, only gaining recognition as a separate division of the American Psychological Association in 1981. Since then, the field has become more broad-based, representing both clinical and forensic workers that seek to understand better the interaction between psychology and the law. A primary mission of forensic psychologists is to protect individual human rights, ensure justice, and enhance well-being by applying psychological concepts to legal issues.
What are the Responsibilities of a Forensic Psychologist?
There are a wide variety of job responsibilities for forensic psychologists, however, jobs often relate to the criminal justice system. In the judicial system, forensic psychologists play a vital role in shedding light on the mental functioning of defendants. They may be called by prosecutors or defense attorneys to evaluate a defendant, provide a psychological assessment, and testify on their findings in court. These assessments can range from evaluating the presence of a psychological disorder to determining if the defendant has diminished mental capacity. Forensic psychologists will often work with victims of crime as well, both in an investigative and a therapeutic capacity. They often conduct investigations into child abuse, elder abuse, and domestic violence, and offer treatments to victims of such crimes after the fact.
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As mentioned above, developing psychological profiles of criminals is just one of many job duties of the forensic psychologist. Profiling involves much research, including an examination of crime scene evidence for clues as to the offender’s physical characteristics, such as age, weight, and race, as well as the motivation for committing the crime. Part of the profiling process is helping direct law enforcement agencies toward potential offenders, as well as making recommendations for effective strategies to interrogate suspects.
Forensic psychologists also work in correctional settings. In this capacity, primary duties include conducting screenings and assessments on inmates, administering court-ordered psychological evaluations, and consulting with attorneys, advocates, prison staff, or judicial personnel on the mental well-being of inmates. Forensic psychologists might also provide mental health care to inmates in the form of group therapies, such as substance abuse treatment or anger management, as well as individual therapy.
What are the Working Conditions for Forensic Psychologists?
The working conditions for a forensic psychologist can be challenging. Many spend their time in prisons, assessing and interacting with people who may not yet want their help. Their assessments are often used as witness testimony in court cases, probation hearings or tribunals so they can spend time in these formal settings regularly. In addition to these assessments, which are typically carried out on a one-to-one basis, they can also spend time with groups of offenders together, running rehabilitation programs.
During all their activities in prisons, forensic psychologists have to obey strict prison rules and will usually have to be searched upon entry and their activities are often filmed. Additionally, they have to be comfortable with an often noisy and disrupted prison environment – this can lead to it being quite a stressful workplace.
In addition though, forensic psychologists also work within the community, in probation programs, in hospitals or talking to victims of crime or professionals within the criminal justice system. Despite it typically being a 9am – 5pm job, the working conditions for a forensic psychologist can be varied, challenging and often unpredictable.
Why are Forensic Psychologists Important?
Police officers that solve crimes are very good at paying attention to various cues in a crime scene. Still, they are not experts in the human mind. Forensic psychologists help police officers close cases by explaining what kind of a person would be most likely to commit a certain type of crime and what their background could be like. This helps officers narrow down their list of suspects and helps them focus on those most likely to have committed the crime under investigation.
Forensic Psychologists also help the court system by assessing or diagnosing people being suspected of committing a crime. This is important as it allows the court system to determine whether a person can be held responsible for his or her actions while committing a crime. Forensic psychologist can also help by assessing how likely it is that a person who has committed a certain crime is going to repeat the same offense if released. Knowing what dangers an individual could pose to society is invaluable to the court system.
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Forensic psychologists are also frequently called to testify in court. A judge might ask a forensic psychologist to tell what kinds of things he should take into account when deciding what the sentence of a criminal should be.
Many people think that forensic people only work with criminals, however, they also frequently help the victims of various crimes. For example, in a child abuse case, a forensic psychologist might help a child to testify in court or to make it easier for an assault victim to recover after being abused.
What is the Employment Outlook for Forensic Psychologists?
The field of psychology is expected to grow at an annual rate of 11 percent through 2026 according to projections by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Though not stunning growth, this represents solid employment opportunities for all psychologists. This is due in large part to the critical role that forensic psychologists play in the criminal justice system, which continues to have a need for qualified workers.
Job prospects for forensic psychologists increase with the level of education and experience. While entry-level jobs are available for recent graduates, more seasoned professionals with several years of experience will be able to find more jobs and higher-paying jobs in greater quantities.
How Much Does a Forensic Psychologist Make?
According to PayScale, the median annual wage for a forensic psychologist is $69,596, as of April 2020. The single largest factor that determines salary is one’s level of experience. Those just starting out in the field can expect to make around $38,000 per year. However, forensic psychologists with more than 20 years of experience can see a yearly salary over $100,000.
The type of work setting, as well as where one lives, can both largely impact a forensic psychologist’s salary as well. Individuals employed by government agencies generally make less than forensic psychologists that work independently on a contract basis. Similarly, workers in urban areas typically earn more money than do forensic psychologists in rural locations.
What are Educational Requirements for a Forensic Psychologist?
Forensic psychologists usually must have a doctorate in order to have the greatest number of career opportunities. However, master’s level forensic psychology professionals may find entry-level employment as well.
To begin, forensic psychologists must have a bachelor’s degree in psychology. Undergraduate studies generally focus on learning the essential features of human behavior. Students that intend to become a forensic psychologist should also take courses in the realms of law and criminal justice as well. Common courses might include abnormal psychology, forensics, and the psychology of deviance.
Graduate programs in forensic psychology blend psychological and criminal justice studies together. Many master’s degrees in this field are between 30-40 credit hours, which, if attending school full-time, would take 2-3 years to complete. Coursework usually includes studies of criminal psychopathology, profiling, interviewing techniques, psychological assessment, and victimology. Some graduate programs require practicum and/or internship experiences. These placements can be in a variety of settings, such as a law enforcement agency, a correctional institution, a residential treatment center, or in the judicial system, such as in the prosecuting attorney’s office.
Most job opportunities, however, are reserved for individuals with a doctorate. Most forensic psychologists obtain either a Ph.D. or a Psy.D., typically in clinical psychology. Post-doctoral studies then generally focus specifically on forensic psychology in order to provide the clinician-in-training with the proper experience to enter the field as a trained worker. Doctoral programs typically last around five years, with post-doctoral work adding an additional 1-3 years to one’s studies.
What is the Difference Between a Forensic Psychologist and a Homicide Detective?
Homicide detectives and forensic psychologists both work with law enforcement agencies, attorneys, and others involved in the legal system. Both are responsible for helping to bring about justice in civil and criminal cases. However, there are some fundamental differences.
Forensic psychology is the interaction between psychology and the law. Forensic psychologists often work in rehabilitation centers, prisons, jails, law firms, police departments, government agencies, private practices, and more. When trying to piece together a criminal case, forensic psychologists are often able to help narrow down the suspect list. They may also be able to provide a motive behind the criminal’s actions. In some cases, the testimony of an expert forensic psychologist can be the deciding factor when trying to convict a criminal.
In addition to addressing existing crime, forensic psychologists play a major role in crime prevention. The services of these professionals may be retained to assist in the rehabilitation of criminals. Individuals in this field can also provide research that may help target certain types of people who might potentially commit crimes before they actually do.
Homicide detectives, on the other hand, are more well versed in criminal justice than in psychology. As their title indicates, these individuals work only with murder cases whereas a forensic psychology may work with a range of crimes including rape and kidnapping charges.
Veteran law enforcement officers, homicide detectives have sharpened their skills through on-the-job experience, training, and academic instruction. They use technology such as DNA testing and digital forensics to apprehend criminals. They often serve as the leaders of investigative teams and supervise the collection and analysis of evidence. Once the collected evidence produces some potential leads, homicide detectives will use traditional methods of investigation including surveillance, interrogation, and records checks to build a case for prosecution.
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